慶長年間(1596〜1614)に大本山本圀寺第16世究竟院日禛上人により開創。本堂は慶長年間に小早川秀秋公の助力を得て、伏見桃山城客殿を移築し造営する。 仁王門は、元和二年(1616)に大本山本圀寺客殿の南門(貞和年間の建立)を移築、仁王像は運慶作と伝えられる。什物に高倉天皇より小督局に下賜された車琴がある。 これは小早川秀秋公より当山に納付されたものである。(非公開)
平安時代より嵯峨野の地は、皇族や貴族の離宮、山荘をかまえる景勝地として有名であった。 特に小倉山、亀岡、嵐山の山麓は、後嵯峨上皇の亀山殿、兼明親王の雄倉殿、藤原定家の小倉山荘の他、 八条院高倉、待賢門院の中納言局、藤原公雄、藤原光経、飛鳥井雅有、覚性法親王や西行法師、涌蓮、向井去来など公家や歌人が好んで別荘や菴を構えた地域です。 後嵯峨上皇が吉野の桜を嵐山に移植してより、嵐山は桜の名所、小倉山は紅葉と鹿の名所として親しまれてきました。
It was founded by the 16th head priest of Honkoku-ji, Priest Nisshin, during the Keicho era (1596-1615). With the support of Kobayakawa Hideaki, the Guest Hall (Kyakuden) of Momoyama Castle was moved to this temple and became its main hall. The south gate (built during the mid-14th century) to the Guest Hall of Honkoku-ji temple, was moved to this temple in 1616 to serve as the Niomon gate. The Nio statues are attributed to the renowned 13th-century Buddhist sculptor Unkei (1151-1223). Among the temple treasures is a kurumagoto (small portable koto stringed instrument), which was granted to the lady Kogo-no-Tsubone by Emperor Takakura (1161-1181). The kurumagoto was then donated to this temple by Kobayakawa Hideaki. (It is not on public display.)
Since the Heian period (794-1192), the Sagano district has been famous as a scenic area where Imperial families and aristocrats erected detached palaces and mountain villas. Especially in the areas around Mount Ogura, Kameyama and Arashiyama, there were countless villas and retreats of emperors, court nobles and poets. These included retired Emperor Saga’s Kameyama Palace, Prince Kaneakira’s Ogura-den Palace, and Fujiwara Teika’s mountain villa. Since the retired Emperor Gosaga (1220-1272) transplanted cherry trees from Yoshino Mountain in Nara, Arashiyama has become famous for its cherry blossoms, along with Mount Ogura for autumn leaves and deer.On the grounds of Jojakko-ji, standing on the side of Mount Ogura, there is a site said to be the possible location of Fujiwara Teika’s villa, Shigure-tei. It was on the north side of Niomon gate. On its south-west corner are the remains of some building’s foundation stones. The villa had been reconstructed by subsequent generations over by Tahoto pagoda. A stone monument for the Shigure-tei stands there today, next to the Immortal Poets’Shrine.Until the Meiji period, the tombstone of Prince Kaneakira was in the cemetery on the north side of the Tahoto pagoda. On the west side of Tahoto pagoda stands the stone monument to the poet Kinoshita Choshoshi (1569-1649), which indicates his close relationship with Priest Nisshin, who was also known for his poetry.
In sevenfold and eightfold, yamabuki flowers are fully blossoming; what a pity, not even a single fruit is borne. (By Prince Kaneakira, Goshui Wakashu, No. 1154)
Hearing a stag calling, I look into my heart, living alone at the foot of Mt. Ogura.
Even living in a hermitage on Mt. Ogura, not a single day passes without my crying about this world along with the deer. (by Hachijo-in Takakura, Poems of Autumn, Shin-chokusenshu, Volume 5)
So desolate is this wintry mountain village, autumn remains only in the sound of a stag. (by Priest /Prince Kakusho, Poems of Autumn, Shukkanshu)
On Mt. Ogura, morning after morning a drizzling rain; yesterday maple leaves all around were tinged in faint colors.（by Fujiwara Teika, Shuiguso, No. 2082）
開山は究竟院日禛上人、字は尊覚と号す。権大納言広橋国光の息男として永禄四年 (1561) 京都に生まれた。幼少にして京都六条堀川の大本山本圀寺第十五世日栖上人に師事し、わずか十八歳にして同寺第十六世の法灯を嗣いた。宗学と歌道への造詣が深く、加藤清正、三好吉房、小出秀政、小早川秀秋、瑞竜院日秀 (秀吉の実姉)、その他京都町衆の帰依者も多数であった。
上人は元和三年 (1617) 八月二十二日、この地に五十七歳の生涯を終えられました。
一道院日法上人(1659~1719)は、身延山久遠寺第三十一世、京都立本寺第二十二世一圓院日脱上人の法嗣で、修法(御祈祷)を もって聞こえ、京都鴨川において一千日の荒行を厳修して洛内外の人々の信仰を集め、門前市をなすが如きであったという。 正徳二年(1712)堀川本蔵寺において霊元上皇の御悩平癒の御祈祷を修し、霊験あらたかとなり、大験者及び上人号の尊称をうけられました。以後本蔵寺は勅願所一道院と称されました。正徳五年(1715)に常寂光寺に入山(当山第十四世)、当山にも霊元上皇より多宝塔に「並尊閣」の勅額を賜わり、本堂には伏見常照院宮御筆蹟にて「御祈祷処」の扁額を賜わりました。日法上人は享保四年(1720)に当山でご遷化されたと伝えられていますが、その墓が一道院にも常寂光寺にも見当たらないことを憂いて本立寺御院首野口泰信僧正と野口政子夫人のご芳志により開山堂の建立と日法上人墓建立となりました。 本立寺の開山は、究竟院日禛上人で、開基は小笠原秀政公の生母、延壽院です。又、一道院は、野口泰信僧正の御父上がご住職をされていましたが、昭和二十年強制疎開にあい全建物を取り壊され寺域は幹線道路敷地として強制買い上げとなり再建困難となられました。以来、一道院の御本尊、什宝の一切が本立寺に移され格護されてこられました。
The Founder, Priest Nisshin
Priest Nisshin was born in 1561 in Kyoto, the son of a high-ranking aristocrat, Hirohashi Kunimitsu. In his childhood, he studied under Priest Nissei, the 15th head priest of Honkoku-ji, the head temple of the Nichiren Buddhist sect in Kyoto, located in the Rokujo Horikawa area. Excelling in academic work, Nisshin took over as the 16th head priest of the temple when he was only 18 years old. From that time on, Priest Nisshin’s reputation stood high as an outstanding leader of the Nichiren sect. Both Kyoto townsfolk and distinguished samurai warlords such as Kato Kiyomasa, Miyoshi Yoshifusa and Koide Hidemasa became devout believers. In 1595 when the Nichiren sect split into two groups over the issue of attending a Buddhist service held for the Big Buddha of Hoko-ji temple that Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the former Imperial Regent, had erected, Priest Nisshin strictly observed the teachings and regulations of the Nichiren sect, which did not accede to Hideyoshi’s enormous authority. He refused to attend the service at Hoko-ji, left Honkoku-ji and founded Jojakko-ji in 1596 here in Mt. Ogura on land donated by the head of the Suminokura family, who was a distinguished urban planner in those days. Nisshin was 36 at the time. Mt. Ogura had been a place famed for poetry from olden times, favored by such distinguished poets as Fujiwara Toshinari, Fujiwara Teika and Priest Saigyo. Because Priest Nisshin himself excelled in poetry, he chose Mt. Ogura for his retreat. In 1617, he came to the end of his life here at the age of 57.
Priest Nippo (1659-1719) was a disciple of Priest Nichidatsu, who was the 31st head priest of Minobusan Kuon-ji (the head temple of the Nichiren Buddhist sect in Yamanashi Prefecture). Nippo was the 22nd head priest of Ryuhon-ji temple in Kyoto, and was very well known for his mighty prayers and incantations. He practiced asceticism by sitting in the Kamo River for a thousand days. This act of faith attracted numerous devotees from inside and outside Kyoto, and there was always a constant flow of people to see him.
Nippo performed faith healing to aid the recovery of the retired emperor Reigen from a severe illness. The ritual was conducted at Honzo-ji temple on Horikawa Street in 1712, and it miraculously worked. Nippo was thus given the honorary titles of Daikenjya (great spiritual practitioner) and Shonin (high-ranked priest). Honzo-ji temple was designated an Imperial Prayer Temple, Chokugansho, and came to be called Ichido-in. Nippo then became the 14th head priest of Jojakko-ji temple in 1715. To commemorate this, the retired Emperor Reigen bestowed an imperial name plaque reading Heisonkaku (Pavilion of Two Respected Images) for the Tahoto pagoda. Also, a plaque reading Gokito-dokoro (Honorable Prayer Place), with calligraphy by Lady Joshoin of the princely Fushimi-no-miya family, was bestowed on the Main Hall. Priest Nippo is said to have passed away in 1719 at this temple, but no tomb has ever been found, either at Ichido-in or here at Jojakko-ji temple. With a generous donation from the present chief priest of Honryu-ji temple, Noguchi Yasunobu, and his wife Masako, who were both deeply concerned about this lack, the Founder’s Hall and Priest Nippo’s tomb were erected in 2004.
History of Myoken Bodhisattva in Jojakko-ji Temple
The “Dhāraṇī Jinju Sutra Preached by Seven Buddhas and Eight Bodhisattvas, Part 2” expounds that the Myoken Bodhisattva is the most eminent among all revered figures, and is thus regarded as a Sonjo, or sacred star, that protects the whole country. The sacred star is further said to vanquish death, enhance vital forces and increase one’s balance-sheet of happiness.Since the Heian period (794-1192), the Myoken Bodhisattva has been greatly respected as the chief of the stars, who presides over the fortune of all things in the universe. There are a number of temples which enshrine Myoken Bodhisattva in Kyoto and the nearby prefectures. In the Middle Ages, the Myoken Bodhisattva was embraced by powerful regional clans as their guardian deity.In early modern times, following the lead of several local lords who took refuge in Myoken Bodhisattva, many commoners also became believers. With the growth of the wealthy merchant class, the Myoken Bodhisattva turned into a god of commerce. It also came to attain widespread respect as a Bodhisattva who has beneficial power for easy births, prosperity and good marriages.
Since the middle of the Edo period (1603-1868), the twelve temples which enshrine Myoken Bodhisattva, situated in the twelve directions from the Imperial Palace of Kyoto, have been designated as Rakuyo Junishi Myoken (Myoken of the Twelve Chinese Zodiac Temples in Kyoto) and considered to be especially powerful. Jojakko-ji temple is one of them, located in the direction of the Rooster (west). The Myoken Bodhisattva statue in this temple was found during the Keicho era (1596-1610) by a boatman living in Sumikura-cho, when the Hozu River flooded and the statue was mysteriously washed ashore. For years it was enshrined in the public assembly hall of Sumikura-cho district. It was transferred to this temple at the time of the 22nd priest (also named Nippo), at the beginning of the 19th century. Since then, it has been called “Tori-no-Myoken Bosatsu (the Myoken Bodhisattva in the direction of the Rooster).” Over the years from the end of the Edo period to the beginning of the Showa (1925-1987), the temple was bustling with worshippers, not only from Kyoto but also from the whole of Western Japan, who prayed for good luck and to ward off evil.
In the time of the 26th chief priest, Nissen (?-1857), Myoken-do hall was constructed. During the time of the 28th priest, Nichigyo (?-1860), the torii gate in front of Myoken-do was donated by Hayata Sahichi, one of the followers, and four stone lanterns placed inside and outside the torii gate were donated in 1845 by the believers’ groups, Myoshinko and the Tenjinko. The names of individual and shop donors are engraved on the lanterns, including old establishments like Daikokuya, Matsuya, Ebisuya, Chojiya, Momenya and Owariya.
As the name “Myoken” can also be interpreted to mean “beautiful features,” actors and actresses as well as women working in the entertainment quarters worship this deity. An exquisite table, placed before the altar in the hall, was donated by kabuki actors. The popularity of Tori-no-Myoken soared during the Bunsei, Tenpo and Koka eras (1818-1846) and greatly contributed to the protection of Jojakko-ji temple. In the time of the 42th priest, Nikken (1878 -1942), the Myoshin-kai group and a women’s association were formed by the followers and local merchant families. The Myoken-do Worship Hall was added in 1928 and the fence around it was donated in 1933 by believers. In the time of the 44th priest, Nitto, in 1974, the main hall and the Myoken-do Worship Hall were entirely refurbished with donations from devotees and supporters as well as income from the admission fee. In 2006 their roof tiles were renewed and the lattice-ceilings were restored. In this way Myoken-do hall has been maintained and refined along with the history of Jojakko-ji temple. When you come to the temple, you really must visit Myoken-do.
鐘楼は、寛永十八年 (1642) 当山第四世、光照院日選上人の建立。梵鐘は第二次世界大戦中徴資に遭い、現在の梵鐘は、昭和四十八年に青木一郎博士の音響設計により、古律黄鐘調の新鐘として鋳造されたもの。毎日、正午と夕方五時に所定の数を突いています。
With the financial support of Kobayakawa Hideaki during the Keicho era (1596-1615), the Guest Hall (Kyakuden) of Momoyama Castle was moved to Jojakko-ji temple to serve as its main hall. This was the time of the 2nd priest, Nisho. According to illustrations found in literature and other material from the Edo period, the Main Hall had a two-layered hon-gawara-style roofing (the style using round and flat titles overlapping alternately). When major repairs to the Main Hall took place in 1932, it was converted to the present hira-gawara-style roofing (the style using flat tiles only).
The belfry was constructed by the 4th chief priest, Nissen, in 1642. The original temple bell was appropriated during World War II to make use of its metal. The present bell was cast in 1973 under the design and supervision of Dr. Aoki Ichiro. It has the classic style of acoustics called ojikicho. Every day, the bell is struck at noon and at 5 pm.
寺伝に、文禄五 (1596) 年日禛上人が、当寺に隠棲して堂舎を建立し、さらに日韶上人が小早川秀秋の助力を得て桃山城客殿を移築して本堂とし、元和二 (1616) 年には本圀寺客殿南門を移して仁王門としたことが見えるから、慶長から元和にかけての頃が、当時の創建期であったらしい。
定家山荘の場所については、諸説ありますが、常寂光寺の仁王門北側から二尊院の南側に有ったと伝へられています。 この場所には、室町時代頃から定家卿の御神像を祀る祠が有りましたが、常寂光寺を創建する時に、定家卿の祠よりも上に寺の庫裏を建てるのは恐れ多いと現在の場所に遷座されました。 明治時代までは、小さな祠でしたが、明治23年に現在の大きさの建物に改築され、歌遷祠と呼ばれるようになりました。 歌遷祠の扁額は、富岡鐡齋の作。南隣に位置する時雨亭跡は、戦前までは庵室が建っていましたが、台風により倒壊してしまい、その後再建出来ず現在に至ります。 この庵室は、いつごろ建てられたか不明ですが、当山の古文書「双樹院日勝聖人傅」（1728年）の境内図には、この位置に庵が描かれています。又、「都名所図会」（1780年発行）にも庵が図示されていることから、江戸時代中期には建てられていたことが分かります。
Tahoto Pagoda (Two-storied pagoda)
According to the Hoke-kyo (Lotus Sutra), when Shaka Buddha was preaching, the ground cracked open and a stupa appeared from below.
From inside the stupa a voice emanated saying “Wonderful, wonderful, Sakyamuni Buddha. Your sermon is the truth.” That was Taho Nyorai (the Buddha of the Past) proclaiming the truth of Shaka’s words. Hence, traditionally the temples which practice the chanting of the Lotus Sutra build Tahoto pagodas. The sutra also states that Taho Nyorai invited Shaka into the stupa where they sat side by side to preach.
Old Shigure-tei Site and Immortal Poets Shrine
There are several opinions about where the exact location of Shigure-tei, the poet Fujiwara Teika’s (1162-1241) mountain villa, used to be. It is believed to have been located somewhere between the north side of Niomon gate and the south side of the adjacent Nison-in temple.
In this same area there originally used to be a small shrine built some time during the Muromachi period (1392-1573), dedicated to Teika with his statue inside. Later, when Jojakko-ji temple was erected in 1596, the monks’ living quarters turned out to be located higher than this august shrine, so it was moved to the present site, higher on the hillside. At first, it was a miniature shrine, but was rebuilt in its present size in 1908. It has been called the Immortal Poets’ Shrine (Kasenshi) since then. The name plaque was written by the well-known ink painter Tomioka Tessai (1837-1924).
There also used to be a hermitage on one of the possible old Shigure-tei sites, immediate south of the Immortal Poets’ Shrine. It was destroyed by a typhoon in the early 20th century and has not been rebuilt. The construction date of this hermitage is unknown, but a map of the temple grounds included in an old document housed in this temple, Story of Sojuin Priest Nissho (1728), has an illustration of a hut in this location. The same building is also shown in Guide to Famous Kyoto Sites (1780). This proves that it was here as early as the mid-18th century.